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When the French proposed their first metric system in 1723, they had no idea it had been invented by the ancient Mesopotamians 5000 years earlier. Just as the French proposed to use the length of a one-second pendulum to create standards of length, volume and weight, the Sumerians had create nearly identical meters, liters and kilograms.Our research shows that the Sumerians in ancient Mesopotamia used both the Moon and the Sun as their clock. It appears that the Egyptians improved on the timing accuracy by using the stars. Later the Minoans introduced the use of the planet Venus as a clock.

These concepts spread throughout the Ancient world from Britain in the West to Japan in the East. The Minoan standards are immortalized in the Magna Carta of 1215. The old English saying “a pint a pound the world around” had been true for over 3000 years. In the 19th Century, both Stuart and Penrose accurately measured the dimensions of the Parthenon finding its width to be 0.9997 arc seconds on the polar circumference of the Earth. This accuracy puzzled scholars for 150 years.

Our research shows the width of the Parthenon in Athens was designed to be 1/30 of the perimeter of the Great Pyramid of Giza. The same pendulum formula, when timed with Venus rather than the Sun, increased the pendulum length just the right amount. This precision was not dumbfounding – it was just dumb luck.

Read Full Article on page 36 -43 of feburary edition at **www.callabmag.com**

*and THE MYSTERY OF THE PARTHENON*

*ROLAND A. BOUCHER*

11 Deerspring Irvine California 92604 rolandfly@sbcglobal.net

We will show how a simple pendulum can be used to create a uniform, easily replicable system of measurement and how the Ancient Mesopotamians in the third millennium BCE developed standards of measurement which are entirely consistent with one based on the length of a pendulum with a 1 second beat.

Just as the metric system would establish similar length-based standards 5000 years later, the Sumerians used the length of this pendulum to create all their standards of length, distance, volume, and weight. It appears that the Egyptians improved on the accuracy of this concept by using the stars to time their pendulum. Later the Minoans on Crete would use the planet Venus when in opposition as their clock.

These three concepts spread throughout the Ancient world from Britain in the West to China and Japan in the East. Examples of the third can be found not only on Crete but in Okinawa Japan, and in medieval England where they are immortalized in the Magna Carta of 1215. The old saying “a pint a pound the world around” had been true for over 3000 years.

Finally we will show that the width of the Parthenon in Athens was designed to be 1/30 the perimeter of the Great Pyramid of Giza using the original Egyptian pendulum formula. The resulting Pendulum when transported from Memphis to Athens increased in length with the increase in gravity. The resulting width of the Parthenon was 1/3600 degree on the polar circumference of the earth within a five figure accuracy. This level of accuracy has confounded scholars for 150 years.

It was not dumbfounding. It was just dumb luck.

This Abstract and Oral Presentation to be made at the 96th Annual Meeting of the Pacific Division of the

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION for the ADVANCEMENT of SCIENCE,

San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California June 14 – 17, 2015

**The following is a copy of the Oral Presentation made to the AAAS on June 15 2015**

** **The volume of the lost Winchester Bushel has been found. It is exactly a one Minoan foot cubed.

*This ancient foot was used to build the Minoan palaces on Crete in the second and third **millennium BCE. Its cube may well have been the origin of both the Troy system of **weights and the Scottish (mercantile) pound of medieval England.*

Let me explain.

During the tenth century, the capital city of the English King Edgar was at Winchester and, at his direction, standards of measurement were instituted. Following the Norman Conquest, the King Edgar physical standards (prototypes) were removed to London.Later in 1215 the Magna Carta established the London Quarter of eight Bushels as the standard of volume for all of England. This Bushel was called the Winchester Bushel.

In 1266, after the original standards were lost, King Henry III issued the “Assize of Bread and Ale” which established a formula by which the volume of the Bushel, the Gallon, and by inference the Pint and the London Quarter could be derived. Applying these formulas has led to this surprising discovery.

The Assize established the Gallon at eight Tower Pounds of corn (grain) and the Bushel at 8 gallons or 64 Tower pounds. A quick calculation of the size of a 64 pound cube of grain at the standard specific gravity of 0.8 yields a cube 30.36 cm on edge. This is precisely the length of the foot used to build the Minoan palaces on Crete in the second and third millennium BCE. A pint is defined as 1/8 of a gallon.

If this pint was filled with water it would weigh 1.25 Tower Pounds or exactly one Scottish or English Mercantile Pound of 6750 grains. The accuracy of this calculation leads one to consider the possibility that the Scottish Pound had been defined in antiquity as 1/64 the weight of one Minoan cubic foot of rain water.

The old saying “A pint**ʼ**s a pound the world around” would have been perfectly true and would tend to explain why even today the pint is divided into 16 “fluid” ounces.

The weight of 1/60 of this Minoan cubic foot of grain could have been used to established the weight of exactly one Troy Pound. The accuracy of this calculation and its sexagesimal nature lends credence to this possibility.

That an ancient measurement developed in Crete could reach England should not be surprising since Cornwall supplied large quantities of tin to the nations of the Mediterranean in the Bronze Age. The Minoans were a sea-faring nation and their standard of measures can be found is such far away places as Okinawa Japan.

Roland Boucher Irvine Ca. March 15, 2014

]]>**The length of the Ancient Minoan foot and the Ancient Japanese Shaku are nearly identical**

This post is in response to questions posed on http://kanashi.net/2011/12/25/the-minoan-seki/

The similarity between the Minoan foot and the the Japanese shaku

These Ancient standards of measurement are, in all probability closely related. At first glance the standards seem to differ by 0.6 mm out of 303 but on further examination they are much closer and in fact could be considered identical.

Background

The Ancient Sumerians in the third millennia BC created a system of measurements which was based on a one second pendulum which was almost one meter long. Distance was measured in multiples of this standard. One of these was a little longer than 1/6 of a nautical mile while the next was about 5 nautical miles. The accuracy of these standards was improved throughout the following centuries

The Minoan foot was derived precisely from the length of a pendulum which swings 366 times in the period the earth rotates 1/366 of its circumference measured on a line of sight to Venus in opposition. The length of this pendulum is doubled then multiplied by 366 to produce a length which is approximately 1/6 arc minute in latitude. The Minoan foot is 1/1000 this distance.

In a similar manner, using the same formula and taking into account the difference in gravity at the two locations as well as allowing for the properties of a real pendulum, the error is well within the measuring ability of these ancient civilizations.

There can be no question that both of these standards are part of the same attempt to replicate a length equal to 1/6 of today’s nautical mile. A standard for accuracy which was only surpassed by the Greeks foot and Stadia.

]]>Today, the arc second and the arc minute (nautical mile) are shown on every chart used today for navigation on both the sea and in the air. Maybe its not so surprising that sea faring nations half a world apart used the same navigational standards so long ago.