The mesopotamians/sumerians were the first to create a standard based on the sone second pedulum. You can find this in my power point presentation and in my paper once it is accpted for publication. The one second pendulum gave them a 994 mm standard length which is the same length suggested for the meter in the 18 century. The bowl was their liter with a volume of 9.94 cm cubed , Their standard weight was one bowl of water (KG). Their standard length was the cubit of 1/2 the pendulum length or 497 mm. their standard of distance was 360 pendulum lengths of 1000 sumerian feet which was a little over 1/6 nautical mile (one minute of arc on the polar circumference of the Earth

In esence this was a 5000 year old metric system

Roland

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]]>“2150 BC: Akkadian Measures

Making a standard for measurement

The Akkadian Empire adopts a single unified standard for measuring volume, based on the royal gur-cube.”

The gur-cube was 300 bowls.

Along the way, I found Livio Stecchini (who lived during the Hitler and Mussolini years) and his “A History of Measures”

http://www.metrum.org/measures/index.htm

I’ve just now found that; it looks worth looking into.

This is the first thing that really stands out (from “The Origin of Metrics”)::

“The study of weights indicates that the units have not changed by a grain in millennia. “

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]]>And basing a unit of volume on weight harks back to Archimedes.

MIKE IT GOES BACK A LOT FATHER THAN THAT, THE SUMERIAN “BOWL” WAS ESSENTIALY A LITER USING THEIR 994 MM STANDARD LENGTH THIS WAS 3000 YEARS BEFORE ARCHIMEDES–ROLAND

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]]>The equations are quite straightforward. making the string heavier relative to the ball speeds up the pendulum because the center of mass of the string is only 1/2 its length of the from the pivot point. The effect of air resistance would be very small especially at the small total angle of swing.

Ps what did you think of the pint and the Magna Carta

Roland

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]]>Or if you used a grandfather clock type pendulum (disk) the results might be closer together.

“… the square of the orbital period would now be equal to the cube of the distance ”

That’s Kepler.

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]]>There is no reason to introduce the mass of the Earth or the Universal Gravitational Constant into these calculations— The insight that the orbital pendulum ACTS AS IF IT WERE ORBITING THE CENTER OF THE EARTH is very powerful.

If Robert Hooke had had this insight or if Newton had accept his proof, the controversy about the inverse square law of gravitation would have been over in his lifetime. The proof is simple if the pendulum gives the same value for the distance to the moon as direct geometrical methods

then the argument would be over. Either Hooke did not have the insight or h Newton did not believe him.

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]]>George Clark had students in Junior Lab at MIT determine the distance from the Earth to the Sun by determining the sun’s equatorial rate of angular rotation by observing the motion of Sun spots. Then they used a spectrometer to measure the shift of spectral line across an equatorial slice of the solar disc. This Doppler shift measurement gives the velocity of approach and recession at the edge of the solar disk, from which the radius of the sun can be found, and from that and the angular diameter of the Sun you get the distance to the Sun.

Peter Renz, August 15, 2012

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