The Pendulum and Standards of Measure in the Ancient World (abstract)

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When the French proposed their first metric system in 1723, they had no idea it had been invented by the ancient Mesopotamians 5000 years earlier. Just as the French proposed to use the length of a one-second pendulum to create standards of length, volume and weight, the Sumerians had create nearly identical meters, liters and kilograms.Our research shows that the Sumerians in ancient Mesopotamia used both the Moon and the Sun as their clock.  It appears that the Egyptians improved on the timing accuracy by using the stars. Later the Minoans introduced the use of the planet Venus as a clock.

These concepts spread throughout the Ancient world from Britain in the West to Japan in the East. The Minoan standards are immortalized in the Magna Carta of 1215. The old English saying “a pint a pound the world around” had been true for over 3000 years. In the 19th Century, both Stuart and Penrose accurately measured the dimensions of the Parthenon finding its width to be 0.9997 arc seconds on the polar circumference of the Earth. This accuracy puzzled scholars for 150 years.

Our research shows the width of the Parthenon in Athens was designed to be 1/30 of the perimeter of the Great Pyramid of Giza. The same pendulum formula, when timed with Venus rather than the Sun, increased the pendulum length just the right amount. This precision was not dumbfounding – it was just dumb luck.

Read Full Article on page 36 -43 of feburary edition at

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